Low fruit quality is a key factor affecting the international competitiveness of China fruits
Appearance quality factor
Appearance quality is an important factor affecting China's fruit exports. China's Loess Plateau has deep soil, high altitude, and large temperature difference between day and night. It is recognized by Chinese and foreign experts as one of the world's best apple cultivation areas. The apples produced here have the advantages of large size, fresh color, sweet and sour taste, and storage durability. It is comparable to the Washington State Apple. However, the appearance quality of the fruit is poor: rust and cracked fruit are formed in rainy years in autumn; small cracks are formed in dry years; fruit shape is not correct; poor coloring, etc., which are important reasons affecting apple exports. Only 10% of the apples that are not bagged in the suitable planting area meet the export standard in terms of appearance quality, and the pass rate of bagging can reach more than 70%.
3.2.2 Technical factors for storage and fresh-keeping
Fruit storage and fresh-keeping is a systematic work, from pre-cooling, refrigerating, heat preservation and transportation to entering the consumer market is a complete cold chain system. More than 90% of the fruits in Japan are pre-cooled. In China, the utilization rate of pre-cooling technology is only 5%. Moreover, most of China's fruits cannot be transported by cold chain, and only 10% of the fruit storage is realized by cold chain transportation. In addition, China's fruit machinery fresh-keeping industry started late, and although it has developed rapidly, it has not yet formed a large-scale level. Fruits in developed countries can be stored in time after harvest, and 70%-80% are controlled atmosphere storage, while the storage capacity of Chinese fruits is only 20% of the total output, and most of them are simple storage. Cold storage and controlled atmosphere storage only account for the total The storage capacity is 7%, and the controlled atmosphere storage is far less than 1% of the total output.
3.2.3 Factors of commercialization processing capacity "Fruit commercialization is the reprocessing and value-added process after fruit is harvested, including selection, grading, cleaning, waxing, ripening, packaging and other links. At present, the post-harvest commercial processing rate of fruits in European countries is as high as 90%, and China is still less than 40%. Although there have been great improvements in recent years, there is still a big gap with advanced countries. Some fruit growers and distributors are not very aware of commodities, coupled with outdated processing facilities, no fruit washing, no waxing, non-strict selection and grading, and irregular packaging are common phenomena, which have seriously affected the export of fruits.
3.3 The single fruit structure is an important factor affecting the competitiveness of China's fruit export
After more than 20 years of development, China's fruit industry has achieved certain results in terms of variety structure and regional layout. However, compared with changes in the structure of consumer demand in the international market, China's fruit production structure still has major defects. The main manifestations are as follows: First, the three major varieties of apples, oranges and pears still account for a large proportion, and the proportion of specialty products such as famous, high-quality new rare products is still very low. Taking 2004 as an example, the output of China's three major fruits, apples, oranges, and pears, reached 49,275,000 tons, accounting for more than 60% of the total output of fruits (excluding melons and fruits) that year. Second, the fruit ripening period is too concentrated. The relatively concentrated fruit maturity period, coupled with the backward storage and preservation, deep processing technology and marketing concepts, make fruit sales more affected by short-term market fluctuations, often causing a large number of fruits to rot in a short period of time, which dampens the enthusiasm of fruit farmers in production. The third is the improper combination of fresh food and processed varieties. Apple juice, frozen fruits, and canned food have become best-selling products in the international market, while the fruit varieties produced in China are mainly suitable for fresh food. There are few special fruit varieties used to process high-end juice, and the small number of juice types has become a restriction on exports.
The outstanding problem.
3.4 The existence of international green trade barriers is an external factor affecting the international competitiveness of Chinese fruits
3.4.1. Harsh fruit testing standards. Developed countries have formulated many mandatory standards in recent years, such as pesticide residues, organophosphorus, and organochlorine content in fruits. These countries use their high-tech, high-precision testing equipment for precise analysis, and the standards are harsh. The United States is one of the main export markets for Guangdong litchi. However, its inspection and quarantine requirements for imported litchi are strict: no live insects, leaves, fruit stalks cannot exceed 10cm, pesticide residues cannot exceed a certain limit, and must be kept at a constant temperature of 1℃ It can be stored continuously for 15 days. These stringent requirements have a great impact on Guangdong's lychee exports.
Japan formally implemented the "positive list system" of agricultural chemicals in food on May 29, 2006, and established limit standards for all agricultural chemicals (pesticides, veterinary drugs, additives) in food, and realized the management of all agricultural chemicals. The limit standards include five standards: provisional standards, current standards, exempt substances, non-detectable substances, and uniform standards. Compared with the previous standards, the number of limit indicators has increased significantly, and the limit indicators have become stricter, and the items to be tested have doubled. To a large extent, my country's tropical fruits are restricted from entering the Japanese market. According to Japan's analysis of inspections of imported agricultural products from 21 countries (regions) including China, Thailand, the United States, China, and Taiwan from April 1 to September 30, 2005, violations of tropical fruits are compared with the old and new standards. According to the analysis (see Table 7), according to the new limit standard, the number of illegal mango pesticide residues in China exceeded 13 cases. It shows that there are many problems in the current pesticide residue limit standards for tropical fruits in my country: the pesticide residue standards are not sound, and the supporting testing methods are few; there is no residue limit for pesticides that are not registered or not used in China, and it is difficult to effectively control the quality of tropical fruits Safety; due to the lack of support from basic research, it is difficult to revise the limit in time.