Analysis on the Characteristics of Chinas Fruit Export and International Competitiveness
China is a major fruit producer in the world, and the fruit industry occupies an important position in the national economy. Since 1993, China's fruit production and area have been steadily ranking first in the world. In 2004, China's fruit harvest area reached 9.768 million ha, and the output reached 153.409 million tons, accounting for 19.71% of the world's fruit harvest area and output respectively. And 16.02%. In terms of tree species, the output of apples, pears, peaches, plums and persimmons are among the top 5 in the world. Especially for persimmons and pears, China's output accounts for 71.5% and 52.9% of the world's total output, respectively. The production of apples and plums also accounts for about 40% of the world's production. Since 1993, the area of apples has experienced an upward trend and then a downward trend, while the output has risen steadily; the area and output of oranges, pears, grapes and bananas have been on the rise, reflecting the trend of expansion of Chinese fruits. . China's fruit production has a pivotal position in the world.
Does China as a major fruit producer mean that it is a strong fruit exporter? Does it mean that it has strong international competitiveness? What are the characteristics of China’s fruit exports? What is its international competitiveness? What are the reasons for its exports and international competitiveness? The play of competitiveness? This article will conduct an in-depth analysis of this.
1 Analysis of the characteristics of China's fruit exports
1.1 The export volume has grown rapidly, but the export rate is still low
It can be seen from Table 1 that in 2006, China exported 3.7016 million tons of fruit, an increase of 18.14% over 2004; the export value was US$2.475 billion, an increase of 50.27% over 2004. In 2006, imported fruits amounted to 1,258,700 tons, an increase of 18.53% year-on-year; the value of imports was US$761 million, an increase of 29.86% year-on-year. In 2006, the fruit trade surplus was US$1.714 billion, an increase of 61.54% over 2004. Although China’s fruit exports have grown rapidly, the proportion of fruit exports in production is still relatively low.
The export rate is less than 3%, which fully shows that although China is a major fruit producer in the world, it is not a world trading power.
1.2 The proportion of fresh and frozen fruit exports is relatively high, while the proportion of processed products exports is relatively low
It can be seen from Table 2 that in 2006, China exported 1,985,100 tons of fresh and frozen fruits, accounting for 53.63% of the total exported fruits; exports of processed fruit products such as fruit juices, canned fruits and other processed fruits were 738,000 tons respectively. , 529,800 tons and 448,600 tons, respectively accounting for 19.53%, 14.32% and 12.12% of total exports. It can be seen that China's fruit is still mainly exported, and the proportion of processed products is still very low.
1.3 The international fruit export market is relatively single
The Chinese fruit export market is mainly concentrated in the United States, Japan, Russia, Indonesia, Germany, the Netherlands and other countries, especially the United States, Japan and Russia. It can be seen from Table 3 that in 2004, Chinese fruit exports to the United States, Japan and Russia were 462,200 tons, 467,900 tons, and 291,100 tons, which accounted for 14.79% and 11.1% of my country’s total exports that year. 10% and 9.31%. By 2006, exports to the above three countries were 519,500 tons, 409,500 tons, and 425,200 tons, respectively, accounting for 14.03% and 11.06 of the total export volume that year. % And 11.49%, the above three countries accounted for 36.58% of China’s total exports. It can be seen that the international market for Chinese fruit exports is still relatively concentrated.
1.4 Provinces exporting fruits are relatively concentrated
China's fruit export provinces are mainly concentrated in Shandong, Shaanxi, Zhejiang, Guangdong, Fujian and other provinces, among which Shandong is the most prominent. It can be seen from Figure 1 that in 2004, the export value of fruits from the above five provinces was 556 million U.S. dollars, 145 million U.S. dollars, 177 million U.S. dollars, 167 million U.S. dollars, and 1-4 billion U.S. dollars, respectively accounting for the total exports of that year. 33.76%, 8.80%, 10.75%, 10.14% and 8.68% of the amount. By 2006, the fruit exports of the five provinces were US$835 million, US$297 million, and 2. US$2.9 billion, US$154 million and US$153 million, respectively, accounted for 33.74%, 12%, 9.25%, 6.22% and 6.18% of the total export value that year.
1.5 The variety of fruit exports is relatively limited
According to customs statistics, China's export fruit varieties are mainly concentrated in temperate and subtropical fresh fruits such as apples, tangerines and oranges, pears, apricots, plums, and dried fruits such as pine nuts, walnuts, and chestnuts. In 2004, the export of fresh apples was 77,200 tons, accounting for 24.76% of the total export of fresh and frozen fruits; during the same period, the export of oranges and oranges was 33,200 tons, accounting for 24.76% of the total export of fresh and frozen fruits; , Accounting for 10.66% of total fruit exports. Fresh apples, tangerines and oranges account for 62.77% of fresh and frozen fruits and 35.32% of total fruit exports, indicating that my country’s fruit export varieties are still quite effective.
2 Determination of the international competitiveness of Chinese fruits
2.1 Determination of indicators
It is complicated and difficult to determine the international competitiveness of a certain product in a country. Many domestic scholars have put forward a variety of indicators through research, such as international market share, trade competitiveness index, domestic resource cost coefficient, effective protection rate, social net income, regional comparative advantage index, and display comparative advantage index. Due to the limitation of data sources, this paper selects the comparative advantage index to measure the international competitiveness of several major fruits in my country, and compares and analyzes the international competitiveness of the major fruit producing and exporting countries.
Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA) refers to the ratio of a country's export value of a certain commodity to its total export value and the world's share of that kind of commodity's world export share. The formula is:
In the formula, RCAij is the index of comparative advantage of the jth commodity in country i; Xij is the export value of the jth commodity in country i; Xit is the export value of all commodities in country i; Xwj is the export value of the jth commodity in the world; Xwt is the export value of all commodities in the world.
When the RCA of a product is greater than 1.0, it indicates that it has strong international competitiveness; when the RCA is less than 1.0, it indicates that the product lacks international competitiveness; when the RCA is equal to 1.0, it indicates that the product has neither Competitive advantage and no competitive disadvantage. This method focuses on the measurement of export performance. Although price and other factors have a certain impact on the accuracy of the measured value, it is often used because it is relatively simple and the basic data is easy to obtain.
2.2 Measurement of indicators
It can be seen from Table 4 that among the seven major fruits in China, only the pear has an RCA value greater than 1.0, which has a strong international competitive advantage. Other fruits have an RCA value of less than 1.0 and are in competition internationally. Disadvantage. Among them, oranges, apples and bananas have relatively small competitive disadvantages. Oranges, grapes and peaches have RCA values of less than 0.1, and their competitive disadvantages are very obvious. From 1991 to 2006, the international competitiveness of China's fruit was in a downward trend and then an upward trend, but as a whole, it did not possess international competitiveness. Except for the apple's competitive advantage, which has been on the rise, other fruits have declined to varying degrees.
It can be seen from Table 5 that the RCA values of fruits in South Africa, Spain and Italy are all greater than 1, which have strong international competitiveness; the RCA values of fruits in other countries are all less than 1, but the RCA values of fruits in the United States and France are higher than those in China. The international competitiveness of Indian fruits is lower than that of China. It can be seen that, on the whole, the international competitiveness of China's fruits is still very low, and it needs to be taken seriously.
3 Analysis of factors affecting the international competitiveness of Chinese fruits
3.1 Low cost gives Chinese fruit a comparative advantage in relative prices in the world, but the advantage is gradually weakening
Price is the most basic factor that affects the international competitiveness of products, that is, the lower the price, the stronger the competitiveness of the same or similar products in the same market, and the price is significantly affected by the cost. Costs include production costs, circulation costs, and various taxes and fees. Production cost is the basis, including the cost of various machinery raw materials and labor costs. my country's fruit production is a labor-intensive industry, and labor costs are relatively low. It can be seen from Table 6 that from 1991 to 2002, the average price of fruit sold by Chinese fruit farmers was relatively low. The average selling price of apples, oranges, and tangerines did not exceed 2 yuan per kilogram. In 1991, the average selling price of apples per 50 kg was 67.17 yuan. By 2002, the average selling price was 48.20 yuan, which was 18.97 yuan lower than in 1991. In addition, in the composition of fruit prices, production costs account for a larger proportion, and fruit production costs are relatively low, which is an important reason why Chinese fruits have a comparative advantage in price. From the point of view of the net rate of return on cost, the net rate of return on the cost of Chinese fruit has a downward trend, indicating the international cost of Chinese fruit