Current Situation for Export of China Fruits (2)
3. "The negative impact of green shock waves on China fruit exports
It restricts the growth of China fruits export trade. China fruits export markets are mainly developed countries and regions such as the European Union, the United States, Japan, and emerging industrialized countries such as ASEAN and South Korea. Their fruit exports account for about 80% of my country's total fruit exports. These countries are all members of the WTO Trade and Environment Committee, and they are more willing to use green trade barriers, a new type of non-tariff trade barriers, to restrict the export of China fruits products. For example, Japan formally implemented the "positive list system" for agricultural chemicals in food on May 29, 2006, and established limit standards for all agricultural chemicals (pesticides, veterinary drugs, additives) in foods, and realized the restrictions on all agricultural chemicals. Management. Limitation standards include five standards including provisional standards, current standards, exempted substances, non-detectable standards and uniform standards. Compared with the previous standards, the number of limited indicators has increased significantly, and the limited indicators have become more stringent. The items to be tested have doubled, which greatly restricts China tropical fruits from entering the Japanese market. Since 2003, more than 60% of China fruits export companies have encountered green trade barriers every year. It can be said that after the entry of the WTO, although the door for China fruits to enter the international market has widened, the threshold has not been lowered. Green trade barriers have become an important obstacle to China fruits exports.
2. Increasing the cost of export products. Weakening the international competitiveness of fruit products. In order to adapt to the green environmental protection standards of developed countries, China fruits exports have to increase the environmental protection inspection, testing, certification and identification procedures and other related procedures during the circulation process. Related costs have led to a substantial increase in various intermediate costs and additional costs for China fruit export products. At the same time, in order to obtain the green mark recognized by foreign countries, some fruit export companies in my country not only have to pay a large amount of indirect costs such as inspection, testing, and purchase of advanced equipment and equipment, but also direct costs such as expensive certification application fees and annual use fees. These undoubtedly increase the export cost of enterprises and make China fruit exports lose the original price advantage in the fierce international market competition. 3 Trade frictions are frequent, and the export risks of enterprises are increasing. In recent years, developed countries have often adopted unilateral trade measures in the name of protecting the environment to restrict the import of fruits from developing countries, including China, and the resulting trade frictions have increased. In addition, developed countries can use free trade within the region to exclude fruits outside the region, including Chinese fruits, on the grounds that they are lower than regional environmental standards, which has brought great uncertainty to the international growth of Chinese fruit export companies. risk. For Chinese export companies, participating in international competition not only has to face extremely harsh market entry barriers, but also face various trade frictions caused by green trade barriers in the process of fruit export, and bear overseas risks one step further. Increase. 4. Reasons for China fruit exports to encounter green trade barriers
1 The level of commercialization of fruits after harvest is low. Commercialization is an important link to promote fruit marketing and increase product value. It has achieved great development in developed countries. However, the producers and related departments of the fruit industry in my country have not yet realized the importance of post-production commercialization. This link has not been paid enough attention. The technology of fruit commercialization is still very backward, the supporting facilities are not complete, and the processing volume is still very small. The average commercialization rate is only about 5%. This way, the fruit is not only easy to rot, but also due to The appearance is of poor quality, lack of competitiveness in the international market, and it is difficult to effectively increase the price.
2 Most fruit growers have low educational level. Poor awareness of green environmental protection. The vast majority of fruit production in China adopts free and decentralized planting methods, and planting is often based on households. Growers have different cultural qualities and different ideas. Coupled with poor awareness of green environmental protection, many problems have appeared in the actual process. Different producers use different chemical fertilizers, spray different pesticides, and harvest different times, so the shape, size, and maturity of the fruit are also different. Therefore, the problem of the fruit grower itself is also an important problem that restricts the commercialization of fruits.
3 Insufficient government policy support. The fruit production cycle is long, and the early stage investment in the orchard is high, and the risk is high. However, the Chinese government currently lacks specific preferential policies to support the development of the fruit industry. Financial support for strengthening the orchard infrastructure construction, accelerating the development of the fruit processing industry, and improving fruit storage conditions, etc. Insufficient effort. Financial institutions have no quotas for special loans for fruits, and problems such as the reduction and exemption of agricultural special product tax and partial return of agricultural special product tax during the adjustment of the fruit structure have also restricted the competitiveness of China fruit products.
4 China's green environmental standards are relatively low. Green environmental standards are the general term for various standards related to pollution control and environmental protection.
Compared with foreign standards, the standards are too low, and enterprises lack the ability to effectively cross the green trade salt barrier. Among the 19,278 existing national standards in China, less than 50% adopt international standards and foreign advanced standards, and there is a serious lack of high-tech standards. In addition, foreign standards have already begun to be formulated in the product production stage, while China's standard formulation work is quite backward and the cycle is long. As China fruits export standards lag behind international standards, domestically qualified fruits are returned or destroyed by the importing country because of excessive antibiotic and pesticide residues when they are exported.
5 The slow response of corporate green certification and low certification capabilities The ISo14000 environmental management system has become an important springboard for companies from all over the world to overcome green trade barriers. Unfortunately, Chinese companies have been slow to respond to this and are not actively applying for certification. As of the first half of 2001, there were only more than 500 enterprises in China that had been certified, some of which were joint ventures, and more Chinese fruit export enterprises were still outside the ISo14000 certification.
6. Countermeasures for China Fruits Exports to Deal with Green Trade Barriers
1 Speed up the construction of the fruit quality standard system. Work hard to build an ecological orchard. Strengthen the construction of fruit quality management system, use advanced technology and equipment, promote fruit testing, speed up the establishment of self-testing systems for all levels of circulation, bases, and export enterprises, effectively control the whole process of fruit before and after delivery, and completely prohibit high-toxic and high-residue pesticides The use of organic fruits accelerates the pace of certification of organic fruits, integrates with the international community, and enables more fruits that meet international quality and safety standards to go out of the country and enter the international market
Actively cultivate ecological orchards and choose a pollution-free ecological environment. There should be no industrial and mining enterprises that form pollution sources near the orchard base. The water or groundwater of the orchard should be free of toxic and harmful substances discharged by industrial and mining enterprises. The soil does not contain natural harmful substances. The orchard is more than 50 meters away from the main road. Before construction, the environmental protection department shall inspect the atmosphere, irrigation water and soil near the base, and the content of harmful substances shall not exceed the national standards.
2 Quickly establish an early warning mechanism for green trade barriers. The main business entities of China fruits trading enterprises are small and medium-sized collective private enterprises. They are small in scale and have little funds. They lack timely understanding and proactive response when facing the ever-changing green trade barriers in developed countries. Ability. Therefore, the government must give full play to its role and take the lead in establishing a green trade barrier warning system to make full use of the technical standards and regulations provided by the World Trade Organization’s national consultation points, as well as agencies such as foreign counsellors’ offices, foreign trade companies and foreign imports. Various information collection channels such as trade partners dynamically track environmental protection information, indicator systems, inspection procedures, technical standards, etc. of trading partners, grasp their development trends, and send early warning information to industry associations and enterprises in a timely manner, so that they can prepare early and actively response
3 Strengthen the commercialization of fruits after harvest and the construction of modern logistics system. The commercialization of fruit after harvest is equivalent to fruit "beauty". At present, the price of fruit in the fruit market in my country is 40 to 50% lower than the price in the international market. The initiative in market competition is in our hands, plus the scale of fruit production in China and the size of the product. The quantity and other conditions have created favorable conditions for participating in international market competition. If the commercialization of fruits after production can be done well, and the cleaning, waxing, grading, labeling, and packaging can be done in accordance with the characteristics of different fruit varieties. With a price advantage, it can also compete with foreign fruits by virtue of the quality of the fruit itself, enhance the competitiveness of China fruits, and increase the added value of the fruit. The development of modern fruit logistics will speed up the construction of China fruit logistics system, implement full-process logistics control in strict accordance with international standards and regulations, develop fruit export trade, and solve the problem of fruit "difficulties in selling", so as to realize the early realization of the country from a large fruit producer to a strong fruit producer and marketer.